Friday, March 4, 2011
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Pneumonia and related (bronchiolitis-bronchitis-croup)
Sturge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features Sturge-Weber:
2. PortWine stain
Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism":
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Maple syrup urine disease
Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:
Cerebral palsy (CP): most likely cause CP: Cerebral Palsy
· The premature brain is more prone to all the possible insults.
Vacterl syndrome: components VACTERL:
Exomphalos (aka omphalocele)
Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTHRIE:
Urine [maple syrup urine disease]
Inborn Errors of metabolism [eg: PKU]
Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla of vater.
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it.
Bilirubin: phototherapy BiLirUbin absorbs light maximally in the
Williams syndrome: features WILLIAMS:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Swelling around eyes (periorbital puffiness)
Russell Silver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Clinodactyly/ Cafe au lait spots
Dwarf (short stature)
Excretion (GU malformation)
Face (triangular face, micrognathia)
Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain, Papa Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years
Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · Use your five fingers:
1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri)
4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot (4=Tetra)
5 fingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words)
Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Transposition of the great arteries
Tetrology of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Head circumference with age · Remember 3, 9, and multiples of 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm
Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg
Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): components
"Remember to decrease the RATE of IV fluids in these patients":
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock the "CRADLE":
Rings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ Respiratory infections
Aspiration (swallowing dysfunction, TE fistula, gastroesphageal reflux)
Lung, airway, and vascular malformations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord dysfunction)
Edema (heart failure)
Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens
Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)
Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF PANCREAS:
Cough (increase in intensity and frequent spells)
Fever (usually low grade, unless severe bronchopneumonia is present)
Pulmonary function deterioration
Nutrition, weight loss
CBC (leukocytosis with left shift)
Radiograph (increase overaeration, peribronchial thickening, mucus plugging)
Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas, tachypnea, retractions)
Activity (decreased, impaired exercise intolerance, increased absenteeism)
Sputum (becomes darker, thicker, and more abundant, forming plugs)
Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric stenosis is 3 P's:
Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks after birth)
Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · 5 T's:
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary aTresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH:
Allergic condition reduced
Best food for infant
Close relationship with mother
Development of IQ, jaws, mouth
Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape
Guards against cancer: breast, ovary, uterus
Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced
Perez reflex Eliciting the PErEz reflex will make the baby PEE.
WAGR syndrome: components WAGR:
Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHIJK:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
In Jury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)
Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)
Rubella: congenital signs "Rubber Ducky, I'm so blue!" (like the "Rubber Ducky" song):
Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus, VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis.
I'm: Eyes (cataracts, retinopathy, micropthalmia, glaucoma).
Blue: "Blueberry Muffin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin +purpura)
· Also, deafness, growth retardation, and some more.
Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-counts 4 objects
Gastroschisis: usual location GasTRoscHIsis usually occurs on the
RIGHT side of the umbilicus.
(Unscramble the letters).
Milk protein: women vs. cows Woman: Whey (mostly)
Cow: Casein (mostly)
Short stature: differential ABCDEFG:
Alone (neglected infant)
Bone dysplasias (rickets, scoliosis, mucopolysaccharidoses)
Chromosomal (Turner's, Down's)
Endocrine (low growth hormone, Cushing's, hypothyroid)
GI malabsorption (celiac, Crohn's)
Sunday, October 31, 2010
"Train private-first class"
B1 - T hiamine
B2 - R iboflavin
B3 - N iacin (nicotinic acid)
B6 - P yridoxine
B9 - F olic acid
B12 - C yanocobalamin
Assesment of Nutritional Status!!!
Posted by wagingwarlord on 24-Feb-2006
1716 people have seen this mnemonic.
HiV=Health and Vital Statistics
ASHA( ACCREDITED SOCIAL HEALTH ACTIVIST)- ROLES
"ASHA will do INFORMATIVE CME on PDA PROVIDED VILLAGES PROMOTE it."
Informative - Inform about birth, death, diseases
C - Counsel mothers
M - Mobilise the ppl for better access to health facilities
E - Escort preg to facilitate institutional delivery
P - Primary medical care
D - Depot holder
A - Awareness about diseases, health care
Provided - Provider of care for child health etc
Villages - Village Health plan formulation
Promote - Promote construction of sanitary toilets etc
Friday, October 15, 2010
Atmosphere was terrific since its pooja holiday here..... Before the show time became housefull....
Mammootty is giving introduction for the movie.
The movie starts with Coimbatore bomb blasts in a textile showroom.. Lots of people dies and so many people were arrested. ATS Commissioner (Praksh Raj) starts investigation and he arrests Babu Sait (Lal) who is a religious leader. He also arrests Aysha (mamtha), suspecting Ammonium Nitrate was distributed from the company where she is working. Lots of questions... no answers... ATS Commissioner and team is not getting any proof to reach them..... He came to know that the culprit is going to walk freely in front of them.........
But suddenly he gets an unexpected stuff which was burning in front of him and he felt the heat of it......................... Suspense........
Better know it from the theaters...........
1. first half
First half was nothing other than a few camera work of amal neerad and action scene in the jail... But that fight lasted for around 20 min and no policemen or securities didnt come until he finish it..
And from then movie goes down very badly... Lot of terrorist activities and criticizing indian laws (one work muted) by babu sait and his talks with Anwar (some of them are very very dangerous i felt) hmmmmm... I felt wonder why censor board allowed such scenes highly inflammable scenes till the end of first half...
2. Anwar goes alone to destroy a group of gundas at their place and fighting with them..
A below average first half ends with lots of booing inside the theater.... Theater owner comes and asks to me hows the movie... hmmm I said, let us see the second half........... other wise........
script is not good.... many time told story.....but good camera works helped forgetting it.....
second half was better considering the below avg first half.....
says story of anwar....
stunning camera works by amal neerad
Songs are ok.... (one song has a resemblance of "vennilave" in SAJ)
Action: First action is good... In the climax fight camera did all the work rather than Prithvi or anybody........
many scenes are from bigb and saj we feel...
Prithvi is ok. Nothing to do.
Lal: as usual...
Prakash raj : did well.............
Mamtha and all are ok..
Songs: Nothing exceptional... just ok......
Below average first half and ok second half.....
WOM: Disappointing..... Youth are criticizing a lot after the movie....
after a good initial dont know whether it will overcome all the negative reports......
GO FOR AMAL NEERAD'S CAMERA WORKS.... NOTHING ELSE IS THERE TO ENJOY.............
Sunday, October 10, 2010
"BAD GUT PAIN" and "ECTOPIC"
B - Bowel obstruction
A - Appendicitis, Adenitis (mesenteric)
D - Diverticulitis
Dysentary/Diarrhea Drug withdrawal
G - Gastroenteritis
Gall bladder disease/stones/
U - Urinary tract obstruction (stone)
T - Testicular Torsion
Toxin - Lead, black widow spider bite
P - Pneumonia/Pleurisy
A - Abdominal aneurysm
IN - Infarcted bowel
Infarcted myocardium (AMI)
Inflammatory bowel disease
S - Splenic rupture/infarction
Sickle cell pain crisis
For FEMALES with acute PELVIC pain, think "ECTOPIC" as well as the above causes
E - Ectopic (This is your priority rule out always)
C - Cyst rupture (corpus leutium cyst rupture)
T - Torsion of ovary or cyst
O - Ovulation: Mittelschmerz
P - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease,
salpingitis, tubo - ovarian abscess
I - Incomplete abortion
C - Cystitis/pyelonephritis
Monday, October 4, 2010
Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action, monitoring
EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
Monitor Xa concentration, rather than APTT.
Knowledge Level 7, System: Cardiovascular
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions
Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis]
Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala
ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also)
Mr. LW Mason 4th Year Medical Student
Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment "Come In and Close the door":
INdomethacin is used to Close PDA.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Milixa Fortuna UAG Medical Student
Propranolol and related '-olol' drugs: usage
"olol" is just two backwards lower case b's.
Backward b's stand for "beta blocker".
Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, oxprenolol, propranolol.
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin
Thrombolytic agents Hi Yield
Dr. Harsh Sharma BJMC, Pune, India
Warfarin: action, monitoring
Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.
Marcus James Fidel Medical Student, University of New Mexico
Saturday, October 2, 2010
•Cranial bones "PEST OF 6":
· The 6 just reminds that there's 6 of them to
Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
•Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers.
•Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer.
•Brachial plexus: branches of posterior
cordSTAR: Subscapular [upper and lower]
Thoracodorsal Axillary Radial
V-trigeminal, Trigeminal nerve: where branches
exit skull"Standing Room Only": Superior orbital
fissure is V1 foramen Rotundum is V2 foramen
Ovale is V3
X-vagus, Vagus nerve: path into thorax"I Left my
Aunt in Vegas": Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior
descending into the thorax.
•On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And
German Viewed Some Hops
•You have I nose. You have II eyes. (I - Olfactory;
II – Optic)
Nasal cavity components
"Never Call Me Needle Nose!":
Nares [external] Conchae Meatuses Nares [internal]
Nasopharynx · Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related.
•CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES:
•c345 keeps the phrenic alive (innervation of
•c345 keep the diaphragm alive (innervation of
•c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven (nerve roots
of long thoracic nerve innervate serratus
ATTACHMENTS OF CHEST MUSCLES:
•A lady between two majors.
•Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of
•Teres major attaches to medial lip of
•Latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of
•The "lati" is between two "majors."
•Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic
trunk, the left Common Carotid, and the left
External carotid artery branches"Suzy
Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making Sex
Terrific": Superior thyroid Ascending
pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital
Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial
Hyoid bone: muscle attachments " C hrist, H e D idn't
S crew G irls M uch. T hat's O bvious, S tupid":
· The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly,
the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly.
· Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial:
C onstricter (middle)
Ramas colaterales de la arteria subclavia: Indio ver
tres ciervos, de un tiro dos escapar y uno matar
IN: Tronco intercostal superior.
VER: Art. vertebral.
3 CIERVOS: 3 arterias cervicales: ascendente, transversa y
1 TIRO: 1 tiroidea: Art. tiroidea inferior.
2 ESCAPAR: dos arterias escapulares: supraescapular y
1 MATAR: Una mamaria: Art. mamaria interna.
Musculos infrahioideos: Este hombre esta tirado
Musculos suprahioideos: Diga estilo mi general
Diga: digastrico anterior y posterior
MIEMBRO SUPERIOR Y CINTURA ESCAPULAR:
Erector spinae muscles
"I Love Sex":
· From lateral to medial: Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
"I Long for Spinach"
· "Sex" helps you think of "Erector", but "Long" and
"Spinach" help you remember the muscles' names.
Thoracoacromial artery branches"CAlifornia Police
Department": Clavicular Acromial Pectoral Deltoid
Axillary artery branches
"Suzy Thompkins Loves Sex, Alcohol, and Pot": ·
From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic
Thoracoacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular
Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex
Serratus anterior: innervation SALT: Serratus
Anterior = Long Thoracic.
Rotator cuff muscles"The SITS muscles":
· Clockwise from top: Supraspinatus Infraspinatus
Teres minor Subscapularis · A pro baseball pitcher
has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he
SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent
to the minor leagues.
Biceps brachii muscle: origins
"You walk shorter to a street corner. You ride longer
on a superhighway.":
· Short head originates from coracoid process.
· Long head originates from the supraglenoid cavity.
Cubital fossa contents "N-MAN":
· From lateral to medial: Nerve Muscle Artery Nerve ·
Specifics are radial Nerve, biceps Muscle tendon,
brachial Artery, median Nerve.
Cubital fossa contents
"My Bottoms Turned Red":
· From medial to lateral:
Tendon of biceps
Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation,
one attachment BrachioRadialis: Function: Its the Beer
Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is
oriented like holding a beer. Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a
flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for
extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis).
Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the
cubital fossa. Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius.
Elbow: muscles that flex itThree B's Bend the elBow:
Brachialis Biceps Brachioradialis
Anterior forearm muscles: superficial groupThere are
five, like five digits of your hand. Place your thumb into
your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other
arm, as shown in diagram. Your 4 fingers now show
distribution: spells PFPF [pass/fail, pass/fail]: Pronator
teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi
ulnaris Your thumb below your 4 fingers shows the muscle
which is deep to the other four: Flexor digitorum
Palmaris longus: location, relative to wrist nerves
"The Palmaris between two Palmars ":
Palmaris longus is between the Palmar cutaneous branch
of Ulnar nerve and Palmar cutaneous branch of Median
Carpal tunnel syndrome causesMEDIAN TRAP:
Myxoedema Edema premenstrually Diabetes
Idiopathic Agromegaly Neoplasm Trauma
Rheumatoid arthritis Amyloidosis Pregnancy ·
Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.
Radial nerve: muscles innervated
"Try A Big Chocolate Chip Sundae, Double Dip Cherries
And Peanuts Preferably Included":
· In order of their innervation, proximal to distal:
Triceps Anconeus Brachioradialis ext. Carpi radialis longus
ext. Carpi radialis brevis Supinator ext. Digitorum ext.Digiti
minimi ext. Carpi ulnaris Abductor poll. longus ext. Poll.
brevis ext. P poll. longus ext. Indicis · For the neighboring
words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and
chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic,
corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex:
ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis)
Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axillaThe
Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital "M" formed
by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves.
Median nerve: hand muscles innervated "The LOAF
L umbricals 1 and 2
O pponens pollicis
A bductor pollicis brevis
F lexor pollicis brevis
· Alternatively: LLOAF , with 2 L's, to recall there's 2
· To remember that these are the Me dian nerve muscles,
think " Me at LOAF ".
Median and ulnar nerves: common features Each
supply 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus. Each supplies 2
lumbricals. Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops
off prematurely. Each supplies an eminence group of
muscles [ulnar: hypothenar. median: thenar]. Each enters
forearm through two heads [ulnar: heads of flexor carpi
ulnaris. median: heads of pronator teres]. Each has no
branches in upper arm. Each makes two fingers claw when
cut at wrist. Each supplies a palmaris [median: palmaris
longus. ulnar: palmaris brevis].
Ulnar nerve to ulnar artery and radial nerve to radial
artery relations Think "peripheral nerves": The ulnar
nerve is "ulnar" to the ulnar artery. Radial nerve is "radial"
to the radial artery.
Carpal bones"Stop Letting Those People Touch The
Cadaver's Hand": · Proximal row, lateral-to-medial
(in anatomical position): Scaphoid Lunate
Triquetrum Pisiform · Distal row, lateral-to-medial:
Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate
Carpal bones"She Looks Too Pretty; Try To Catch
Her": · Proximal row then distal row, both lateral-to-
medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform
Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate · Alternatively:
"She Likes To Play; Try To Catch Her".
"Es solo una piramide de pis"
Flexor digitorum muscles: how they insert onto
fingers· A little rhyme: Superficialis Splits in two, To
Permit Profundus Passing through.
Dermatome C6 location
Stick arm out like crucifixion stance. Curl your
thumb and forefinger into an "OK" symbol while
keeping your other fingers straight. Your hand
should now look like a 6 shape. So C6 dermatome is
your thumb and top of arm (reason for crucifix
stance). · See diagram.
Dermatome C7 locationC7 gives the finger to heaven
(as in middle finger).
Lumbricals action Lumbrical action is to hold a pea,
that is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and
extend the interphalangeal joints. When look at
hand in this position, can see this makes an "L"
shape, since L is for Lumbrical.
Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) "A OF A
· Thenar, lateral to medial:
Abductor pollicis longus
Flexor pollicis brevis
· Hypothenar, lateral to medial:
Opponens digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi
Hip: lateral rotators"Play Golf Or Go On Quaaludes": ·
From top to bottom: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator
internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus
femoris · Alternatively: "P-GO-GO-Q".
Hip: lateral rotators "Piece Goods Often Go On Quilts":
Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus
inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris
Lumbar plexus "I, I Get Laid On Fridays":
Genitofemoral [L1, L2]
Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]
Obtruator [L2, L3, L4]
Femoral [L2, L3, L4]
· Alternatively: "I twice Get Laid On Fridays". ·
Alternatively: "Interested In Getting Laid On Fridays?"
Inguinal canal: walls"MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T":
· Starting from superior, moving around in order to
posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: · internal oblique
Muscle · transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2
Aponeuroses: · Aponeurosis of external oblique ·
Aponeurosis of internal oblique Lower wall (floor): 2
Ligaments: · inguinal Ligament · lacunar Ligament
Posterior wall: 2Ts: · Transversalis fascia · conjoint Tendon
Obturator canal: relations of structures "Who's flying
in the top of Obturator canal? Obviously Not A Vein!":
Thigh: innervation by compartment" MAP OF Sciatic":
Medial compartment: Obturator Anterior compartment:
Femoral Posterior compartment: Sciatic
· So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get
innervated by that nerve.
Leg: anterior muscles of leg"The Hospitals Are Not
Dirty Places": T: Tibialis anterior H: extensor Hallucis
longus A: anterior tibial Artery N: deep fibular Nerve D:
extensor Digitorum longus P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis
Leg: anterior muscles of leg "Tom's Hairy ANd Dirty
T: Tibialis anterior
H: extensor Hollicis longus
AN: anterior tibial Artery & deep fibular Nerve
D: extensor Digitorum longus
P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]
Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents
"The Hamptons Are Never Dull Parties": · From medial
malleolus: Tibialis anterior tendon (Extensor) Hallacus
longus Artery (anterior tibial) Nerve (deep peroneal)
(Extensor) Digitorum Peroneus tertius
"Tall Californian Navy Medcial Interns Lay Cuties":
· In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to lateral):
Talus Calcanous Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate
cuneiform Lateral cuneifrom Cuboid
Tarsal tunnel: contents
"Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters":
· From superior to inferior:
T: Tibialis posterior F: flexor Digitorum longus A: posterior
tibial Artery N: tibial Nerve H: flexor Hallucis longus
Friday, October 1, 2010
"SIG" is an abbreviation doctors use to stand for prescribe;
"E" stands for energy; and "CAPS" stands for capsules.
S-sleep decrease or increase;
P-psychomotor disturbance (agitation or slowed movements);